英语四级六级培训课程

医学习英语会话——猪流感

时间:2022-1-3 作者:哒哒英语

美国已发现的猪流感病毒和在墨西哥引起致命传染的是同一病毒.猪流感是什么东西?大家将怎么样应付?这里解答你的所有疑惑。

The swine flu virus in the U.S. is the same one causing a deadly epidemic in Mexico. What is swine flu? What can we do about it? WebMD answers your questions.

1、猪流感是什么?

和人一样,猪也会得流感。有4种不一样的A型猪流感病株常在猪之间传播 .近期几种猪流感病毒是H1N1和H3N2亚型.猪罹患流感后通常不会致死.最新爆发的这种感染人类的猪流感病毒非常不同一般。它大概已从猪,鸟和人流感病毒中获得了基因片断.并且已从本来不会在北美出现的欧亚猪流感毒株种类里获得了基因。 医学教.育网搜集

What Is Swine Flu?

Like humans, pigs get the flu. Four different type A swine flu strains commonly circulate among pigs. Most recent swine flu viruses have belonged to the H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes. Pigs typically get sick but usually don’t die from swine flu.

The new swine flu virus infecting humans is very unusual. It’s somehow acquired genes from swine, bird, and human flu bugs. And it’s also got genes from Eurasian swine flu viruses that aren’t supposed to be in North America.

2、人会得猪流感吗?

一般猪流感不会感染人类.美国历史上。每一两年在接触活猪的人群里会有一例感染.但从2005年12月到2009年1月间,人类感染猪流感病例上升了。这段期间出现12例病例。其中11例的病患有直接或间接活猪接触史;剩下这一例未知.这种病例上升可能和疾病报控系统健全有关,但疾病控制和预防中心CDC指出“猪流感病毒的基因变化和其他原因可能也有关系。”这种新病毒与以往不同。它正在感染人类,世卫组织官员正密切关注其进步.

Do Humans Get Swine Flu?

Normally, swine flu bugs don’t infect people. Historically, there’s a case every year or two in the U.S. among people who have contact with live pigs.

But from December 2005 to January 2009 there was an uptick in swine flu cases. There were 12 human swine flu infections during this time. Eleven of these people had direct or indirect contact with pigs; in the twelfth case it was not known whether there was pig contact.

It’s possible this uptick was due to improved reporting systems, but the CDC says "genetic changes in swine flu viruses and other factors might also be a factor."

The new swine flu virus is different. It’s not yet clear that it’s here to stay. But it is infecting humans, and that has world health officials keeping a close eye on it.

3、 猪流感会在人群之间蔓延吗? 医.学教育网整理

美国发现的感染猪流感病人没直接接触过猪。CDC说这种感染可能是大范围内的人-人传染个案。

Can Swine Flu Spread From Person to Person?

The U.S. residents infected with swine flu virus had no direct contact with pigs. The CDC says it’s likely that the infections represent widely separated cycles of human-to-human infections.

4、 猪流感的症状? The Symptoms of Swine Flu

What Are the Symptoms of Swine Flu?

Swine flu symptoms are similar to regular flu symptoms and include cough, sore throat, fever, chills, headache, and fatigue. Some patients have also reported nausea恶心 and diarrhea腹泻. There is no easy way to distinguish swine flu from other types of flu or other germs. It takes a lab test to tell whether it’s swine flu.

猪流感症状:

与感冒类似,出现发烧、咳嗽、疲劳、食欲不振等

5、以前有过猪流感爆发吗?

假如你过去听到过猪流感,非常可能是你回忆起了或者读到过1976年那次在新泽西Fort Dix的猪流感在入伍新兵里的爆发.那一次持续了一个月然后消失了。来得忽然,去得也非常神秘. 当时有240例感染;死亡一例。 在Fort Dix传播的是H1N1型猪流感毒株,与致使灾难性瘟疫的1918-1919年流感相同,那场灾难夺走了上千万人的生命。(1976年)出于一种新H1N1病株大时尚可能伴随冬天卷土重来的担忧, 致使一次匆忙上马的项目,以创造一种猪流感疫苗并对所有美国人接种. 那次疫苗项目后来问题百出– 其中包括公众恐慌致使了过多的危险的过激反应,这还算小麻烦.在4000多万美国人接种后,这个徒劳的努力被放弃了。现在证实尚无猪流感大时尚事件。医.学教.育网搜.集整理

Have There Been Previous Swine Flu Outbreaks?

If swine flu sounds familiar to you, it’s probably because you remember or have read about the 1976 swine flu outbreak at Fort Dix, N.J., among military recruits. It lasted about a month and then went away as mysteriously as it appeared. As many as 240 people were infected; one died.

The swine flu that spread at Fort Dix was the H1N1 strain. That’s the same flu strain that caused the disastrous flu pandemic of 1918-1919, resulting in tens of millions of deaths.

Concern that a new H1N1 pandemic might return with winter led to a crash program to create a vaccine and vaccinate all Americans against swine flu. That vaccine program ran into all kinds of problems — not the least of which was public perception that the vaccine caused excessive rates of dangerous reactions. After more than 40 million people were vaccinated, the effort was abandoned.

As it turned out, there was no swine flu epidemic.

6、我打过流感针了,我对猪流感免疫吗?

不可以,现在还没有有猪流感疫苗。大概季节性的流感疫苗会对H3N2型猪流感病毒提供部分抗体。但在加州出现的是H1N1型毒株.与人类流感H1N1毒株不同非常大.先前接种过人型H1N1流感疫苗是不是能部分抵御此次爆发的猪型H1N1病毒。现在不能而知。然而,CDC已经从一位被感病人身上提取出的猪流感病毒里开发出一个“疫苗种”,并已启动一旦需要立即开发的程序。是不是需要在下一个流感季节到来前批量生产是个大问题。

It’s possible that the seasonal flu vaccine might provide partial protection against H3N2 swine flu bugs. But the strain that appeared in California is the H1N1 swine flu strain. It is very different from the H1N1 human flu strain included in the seasonal flu vaccine.

It’s not known whether previous infection with human type A H1N1 flu might provide partial protection against the type A H1N1 swine flu in the current outbreak.

However, the CDC has made a "vaccine seed" from swine flu isolated from an infected person, and has begun the process of developing a vaccine should the need arise. Whether a vaccine could be produced in quantity by next flu season is a huge question.

Is There a Treatment for Swine Flu?

Yes. While the swine flu bug is resistant to older flu medicines, it remains sensitive to Tamiflu and to Relenza.

7、 猪流感时尚对公共卫生安全的威胁有多紧急?

任何流感大时尚都让人不安,尤其是当一种新型毒株介入的时候。CDC警告“能有效地在人与人之间传播并致病的新(对人)流感A病毒,都非常可能是疾病大爆发的威胁。”不同于季节性流感,让人担心的是,此次墨西哥爆发的猪流感攻击健康的青年。这是会致使大时尚的病毒的标志特征。但要在人类间制造一次流感大时尚还需要不止新病毒一种因素.病毒需要从一个人有效地传播到下一个,并长期持续这种传播能力。另外,病毒还要在广泛地域传播.

How Serious Is the Public Health Threat of a Swine Flu Epidemic?

Any flu epidemic is worrisome, especially when a new strain of flu bug is involved.

"Influenza A viruses new to the human population that are able to efficiently transmit from person to person and cause illness may represent a pandemic threat," the CDC warns.

It’s worrisome that, unlike seasonal flu, the swine flu outbreak in Mexico is attacking healthy young people. That’s a hallmark of pandemic flu bugs.

But it takes more than a new virus spreading among humans to make a pandemic. The virus has to be able to spread efficiently from one person to another, and transmission has to be sustained over time. In addition, the virus has to spread geographically.

8、猪流感能治吗?

是的.虽然对老的流感药有耐药性,它仍对达菲(Tamiflu)和乐感清(Relenza) 非常敏锐。

I Got a Flu Shot. Am I Protected Against Swine Flu?

No. There is currently no swine flu vaccine.

9、 吃猪肉会得猪流感吗?

不会,你只有在一头病猪附近呆过才会得病–或者,假如这次真是一种新型猪流感病毒的话,也能从被感染的人那里得病.

Can You Get Swine Flu by Eating Pork?

No. You can only catch swine flu from being around an infected pig — or, if it’s the new swine flu virus, from an infected person.

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